Vision: A diverse and productive landscape with healthy, functioning soils.
Land and soil across the catchment are fundamental to the natural environment, supporting ecosystems and the lifestyle and livelihood of the community.
The catchment covers 2.4 million hectares. Seventy percent is privately owned (1.68 million ha), with about 63% managed primarily for agricultural production and the remaining 7% a mix of rural residential and urban development. Approximately 30% (800,000 ha) is public land that is primarily reserved for environmental and cultural conservation, nature-based tourism and timber harvesting. Public land is co-managed by Traditional Owners and government agencies.
The diversity of private enterprises is increasing with growth in areas such as horse studs, wineries, solar farms, glasshouse horticultural production and tourism. At the same time, traditional agricultural businesses such as cropping, livestock, horticulture and dairy production remain dominant, although the area of irrigated land is decreasing.
Diverse land use and values means assessing land condition is subjective, as good condition for one use maybe poor for another. However, in terms of NRM, good condition is defined as healthy, functioning land systems that provide ecosystem services and deliver on a range of cultural, lifestyle and economic outcomes.
Overall catchment condition for land is rated as satisfactory and has remained stable since 2009. While there was an upward trend in land health during the 1990s and early 2000s, this has plateaued with ongoing land health issues such as reduced litter cycling, poor soil structure and reduced water infiltration and holding capacity. This is in part because of historical land management on public and private land, such as vegetation clearing, some grazing practices, fuel reduction burning and more recently the impacts of climate change.
Land management practices continue to adapt, and in some cases transform, however, there is more complexity around land use. Private land is increasingly valued for housing development, lifestyle and amenity, solar farms and a range of agricultural enterprises. Public land is co-managed by government and Traditional Owners and has competing uses such as nature conservation, firewood collection, recreation, cultural and forestry. This means that engagement, and the adaptation of land management practices, needs to be more flexible to ensure relevance to the diverse range of managers and recognises tension between historical and new land use.
A snapshot of the land theme of the strategy is provided in Figure 42 below, click on the tabs below for further details.
Key landscapes and soil types
There are 3 key geological landscapes and dominant soil types across the catchment, each with a different capability to support different land use (Figure 44).
- The Eastern Uplands, to the south, contain extensive native forests, parks, production forestry and primary production. This landscape includes the Strathbogie Ranges and plateau, Kinglake, Mt Buller, Tallarook and Warby ranges, Lurg Hills, valleys of the Goulburn and Broken rivers and their tributaries. The Eastern Uplands are predominantly formed from sedimentary rocks, some metamorphosed, with some granite intrusions. The dominant soil types are chromosols, kurosols, and dermosols, which can be highly erosive due to terrain and soil physical and chemical properties, as well as being highly acidic.
- The Western Uplands includes extensive grazing extending west from the Kilmore Gap. This landscape is characterised by undulating hills and broad valleys formed from sedimentary rocks with some granite intrusions. The dominant soil types are kandosols and sodosols that can be highly erosive due to terrain and soil physical and chemical properties, and are slightly acidic in the topsoils.
- The Northern Riverine Plains covers all the irrigated agriculture in the catchment and is an extensive and complex alluvial plain. It includes the Shepparton Irrigation Region, Mosquito and Kanyapella depressions, Winton Wetlands and the lower reaches of the Seven Creeks and Broken River. Sodosols and chromosols are the dominant soil type, which are characterised by strong texture contrast between the surface (A) and subsoil (B) horizons. Sodosols have sodic B horizons, are not strongly acidic, are prone to disperse when wet, are often dense, poorly structured and prone to erosion and salinity issues.
Further information about the catchment’s landscapes and soil types can be found at Victorian Resources Online.
Land capability describes what and how a specific area of land may be sustainably used without degradation to soil, land, air and water resources. The capability of land depends on the soil (depth, texture, acidity and stoniness), the slope, aspect and geology of the land and the climate including seasons, temperature and rainfall. If land is managed within its capability, then the sustainability and potential use will not decline and may improve over time. Regulations on public and private land aim to ensure that land use matches land capability, for example, planning schemes.
Land health refers to the capacity of the land to sustain and provide for primary production, rich biodiverse landscapes and high water quality. It creates the resilience required for the catchment to adapt to and mitigate climate change, while supporting a range of uses and values. This strategy focuses on four critical areas of land health:
- species diversity
- ground cover
- soil organic carbon
- soil acidity.
Land management practices that enhance land health in turn maintain or restore soil services. Soil services include soil carbon storage, soil biodiversity, soil structure and soil water holding capacity. These services underpin sustainable land use, fundamental ecological processes and the environmental and productive capacity of soils (Goulburn Broken CMA 2015), and may represent a different way of thinking about public land management.
Land use is diverse across the catchment. Figures 44 and 45 describe the extent and spatial distribution of different classes of land cover. Agriculture is the major land use on private land, with Table 102 describing the gross value of the agricultural commodities produced in the catchment.
Table 102: Agricultural commodities gross value ($) in the Goulburn Broken Catchment for 2019-20. Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
|Agricultural commodity||Gross value ($) 2019-20||Percentage (%) of total agriculture value|
|Nurseries, cut flowers or cultivated turf||60,882,914||2.9|
|Fruits and nuts (excluding grapes)||477,557,593||22.6|
|Fruits and nuts (grapes only)||9,959,577||0.5|
|Livestock slaughtered – Sheep and lambs||241,472,459||11.4|
|Livestock slaughtered – Cattle and calves||328,316,703||15.6|
|Livestock slaughtered – Pigs||65,788,453||3.1|
|Livestock slaughtered – Poultry||47,787,656||2.3|
|Livestock slaughtered – Other||33,678,230||1.6|
Qualitative condition ratings for the catchment’s land have been reported by the Goulburn Broken CMA since 1990 using available evidence. These ratings have been drawn from Goulburn Broken CMA annual reports, tipping points described by the community, socio-economic research and the land theme discussion paper developed as part of the strategy renewal. More information is available in Goulburn Broken CMA annual reports.
Figure 46 shows the trends in the condition of catchment’s land since 1990 and the long-term risk of a decline in condition given current support levels.
Figure 46: Trends in the condition of the Goulburn Broken Catchment’s land health since 1990 and the long-term risk of decline given current support levels
Catchment condition for land is rates as satisfactory and has remained stable since 2009. While there was an upward trend in land health during the 1990s and early 2000s as soil erosion, salinity and fertility issues were addressed and agricultural management practices evolved, this trend has plateaued. This is in part due to historical land management practices (such as vegetation clearing and fuel reduction burning), current land management practices not alleviating soil structural issues (such as compaction and low soil carbon), emerging issues (such as subsoil acidity) and the increasing impact of climate change.
Land health can be assessed by looking at the following 4 focus areas which are connected and influence each other: species diversity, groundcover, soil organic carbon and soil acidity. The condition of these focus areas is largely based on the diversity of plant species grown, the percentage of ground cover, building soil organic carbon and soil pH levels.
Plant species diversity
The diversity of both native and introduced plant species on private land is poor and/or declining, but on public land is good and declining. This negatively impacts soil biology.
Historic clearing and set stocking has resulted in a simplified landscape. Many native plant species and functional groups have been lost such as perennial grasses and herbs, mid-storey shrubs, legumes, summer-active grasses and paddock trees. Cleared native vegetation is often replaced by lower diversity pasture species mixes and/or single-species crops, and periods of chemical or mechanical fallow or non-active growth and/or increase in annual species. This increases the risk of soil exposure, and accelerated soil acidification and soil organic carbon loss, reducing productivity potential.
Interest in native vegetation corridors and plant species diversity in grazing and cropping systems is growing among private land managers. The benefits for agricultural production are recognised, such as providing habitat for insect pest predators, shade and shelter for livestock, soil stabilisation and so on. However, adoption across the landscape is low due to the high capital costs.
Ground cover across the catchment varies depending on seasonal conditions and land management practices. It is critical for land health as ground cover protects the soil from wind and water erosion. It also supports water infiltration by slowing surface water movement, improving soil structure and reducing evaporation. Groundcover also supports both plant and animal species diversity and provides a source of organic carbon.
Historically, reduced ground cover or bare ground has resulted from management practices such as: set stocking, stubble burning and bare fallow on private land and fuel reduction burning on public land. Ground cover is also reduced by periods of drought, natural disasters and grazing pressure from feral and native grazing animals. There are management options to increase ground cover, such as stubble retention, rotational grazing and cover cropping. However, climate change will make it increasingly difficult to maintain ground cover as the catchment experiences hotter and drier conditions and infrequent or heavy rain.
Figure 47 shows the annual percentage of exposed soil in the catchment since 2000, with it fluctuating from 6.5% to 13% over the 20-year period.
Soil organic carbon
Soil organic carbon levels in soils used for agricultural production are acceptable above 2%, and where possible, increasing. This level is appropriate given what can be achieved in conventional cropping and pasture management with the catchment’s soil types and climate. However, it is indicative only as it does not capture land use or the spatial or temporal variability that influences soil organic carbon levels. Land managers who test their soil regularly will have a good understanding of their 0-10 cm soil organic carbon levels and how they relate to management.
A recent focus on soil’s ability to sequester carbon has improved our understanding of soil carbon variation across paddocks and with depth. Deeper soil cores are required to test soil carbon for baseline levels and monitoring for initiatives such as the Emissions Reduction Fund.
Soil organic carbon loss impacts water infiltration and holding capacity, nutrient cycling and soil physical structure. The upper limit of soil organic carbon is driven by soil type, climate and to a lesser extent land use, because soil type and climate drive plant growth and therefore carbon cycling. When land is cleared of perennial species, soil is disturbed at a large scale through cultivation, earth works or is sprayed out and soil organic carbon is lost as it is mineralised by soil microorganisms or carbon inputs diminish.
Soil acidity, or pH, has a strong influence on the chemical environment of the soil. It also impacts soil biological activity and organic carbon. Soils with low pH may lack ground cover and perennial species and have low productivity, influencing soil organic carbon. Many of the catchment’s soils are naturally acidic, with agricultural production further exacerbating this.
Soil acidity varies across the catchment, depending on factors such as parent material, age of the soil and rainfall. Agricultural activity such as use of legumes, fertiliser selection, product removal (meat, hay, milk and so on) and build up of organic matter can contribute or accelerate soil acidification. Soil test data from farms around the catchment show that soil acidity is present and a risk. Furthermore, it indicates that soil pH levels are in a range where nutrient availability and toxicity are affected. That is, soil pH is below 4.8 in calcium chloride. Sub-soil acidity is an emerging issue with widely used testing and management practices (such as 0-10cm soil testing, bulk sampling and top-dressing lime) potentially underestimating the issue.
Drivers of change
Drivers of change influence how the catchment operates and can shape future pathways. What we do now will impact the landscape in the future. In addition, unanticipated or acute shocks such as pandemics, industry adjustment, bushfires or floods can impact the catchment dynamics and land.
Tables 103-107 describe the 5 major drivers of change impacting land in the catchment. They were identified through community engagement and socio-economic analysis as part of the strategy renewal:
- changing land use and ownership
- climate change
- technological innovation
- increasing role and recognition of Traditional Owners in land management
- declining terms of trade for agriculture.
Driver 1: Changing land use and ownership
Table 103: Catchment trends and impacts on land from changing land use and ownership
|Catchment trends||Impacts on land|
|• Proliferation of smaller properties as large holdings are subdivided.|
• Increase in larger amalgamated family and corporate farms.
• Next generation of landholders and managers moving in.
• Private land moving from agriculture to lifestyle properties and urban development, due in part to Melbourne residents moving to regional areas.
• Increasing use of public land for recreation activities such as four-wheel driving and off-road motorbikes.
|• Opportunities to work with larger family farms, corporates and new landholders on accountability for land health.|
• Reduced recreational impacts due to better track and people management to minimise track footprint and soil erosion.
• Opportunities to implement planning schemes to ensure land is managed within its capability.
• Requirement for ongoing extension programs to meet the demands of new landholders.
Driver 2: Climate change
Table 104: Catchment trends and impacts on land from climate change
|Catchment trends||Impacts on land|
|• Hotter and drier climate.|
• Reduced reliability of rainfall in spring and autumn and intensity of summer rainfall.
• Increased frequency and intensity of storms, heatwaves, bushfires and droughts.
|• Difficulty maintaining ground cover with more frequent droughts and/or bushfires.|
• Increased risk of soil erosion from storms and rainfall events after bushfires.
• Risk of ground cover dropping below the required 70% to prevent water erosion and 50% to prevent wind erosion.
• Practice change required to include carbon retention, resulting in soils with higher water holding capacity, on private and public land.
• Changing range and distribution of species and land use, for example, incursions of new pests and diseases or changing climatic zones for fruit trees.
• Changed rainfall patterns may reduce soil salinisation.
• Reduced availability of irrigation water supplies and increasing water price, influencing land use.
Driver 3: Technological innovation
Table 105: Catchment trends and impacts on land from technological innovation
|Catchment trends||Impacts on land|
|• Emerging technologies supporting changes to agricultural practices, such as robotics, virtual fencing, remote and/or automated irrigation systems and planned grazing.|
• GPS guidance and mapping technologies supporting precision agriculture.
• Remote monitoring of soils, crops and pastures.
• Improved animal genetics, such as faster finishing livestock resulting in lower emissions per unit of animal product.
• Improved plant genetics, such as drought, disease and soil acidity tolerance.
|• Opportunities for improved and more efficient land management.|
• Opportunities for improved monitoring of land condition.
• Intensification of agriculture where it can be carried out most efficiently and effectively considering soil health and system function.
• Diversification of farming systems due to new technologies and changing climates.
Driver 4: Increasing role and recognition of Traditional Owners in land management
Table 106: Catchment trends and impacts on land from the increasing role and recognition of Traditional Owners in land management
|Catchment trends||Impacts on land|
|• Greater acknowledgement and integration of Traditional Owner land management.|
• Government policies promoting greater Traditional Owner involvement in catchment planning.
• Legislative changes formalising co-management arrangements of Crown land.
|• Opportunities to develop co-management approaches on public land, including land use, ground cover and litter management.|
• Opportunities to improve understanding of potential cultural and economic benefits of integrating more indigenous species on productive land.
• Opportunities to improve awareness and understanding of the potential role of indigenous land management practices in private land management. For example, cultural heritage assessments, cultural burns and healing of Country through the reintroduction of native plants and animals.
Driver 5: Declining terms of trade for agriculture
Table 107: Catchment trends and impacts on land from declining terms of trade for agriculture
|Catchment trends||Impacts on land|
|• Increased pressure for intensification and farm expansion.|
• Farmers seeking off-farm income and becoming part-time farmers.
|• Risk of ground cover dropping below the required 70% to prevent water erosion and 50% to prevent wind erosion.|
• A need for practice change so farmers can still manage land for health and function, and capture new income sources for ecosystem services provided on-farm such as carbon offsets.
• Potential for inappropriate use of land beyond its capability.
• Opportunities for different business structures (such as corporates, co-ops and so on) to invest in land health projects at a large scale.
• Opportunities for improved land health as farmers meet consumer demand for greener products.
Understanding and identifying tipping points of significant change is important to increase the resilience of the catchment and its social, economic and environmental services. A tipping point, or threshold, is a critical level of one or more variables. When crossed, it triggers abrupt change in the system that may not be reversible (Wayfinder 2021).
Some tipping points are well understood and can be used to track progress and guide management, while our understanding of others is still developing. It is a key outcome of the strategy to build our understanding of tipping points and how to apply them through partnerships and research projects with a range of organisations. This strategy outlines which tipping points are important to understand and monitor. In some circumstances tipping points have been exceeded and we need to establish targets to stabilise system function. Further information about tipping points is available here.
Table 108 outlines the data-driven tipping points for land that will be investigated during the life of the strategy.
Table 108: The data-driven tipping points for land that will be further investigated during implementation of the Goulburn Broken Regional Catchment Strategy
|Critical attribute||Tipping point of interest|
|Species diversity||• Identify tipping points for species diversity in the landscape and soil biology.|
|Ground cover||• Identify the minimum level of ground cover needed to prevent erosion, improve the water cycle and prevent soil organic carbon loss.|
|Soil organic carbon||• Identify the minimum level of soil organic carbon in annual croplands, permanent pastures and plantings needed to improve water infiltration and holding capacity, nutrient cycling and soil physical structure.|
|Soil acidity||• Identify tipping points for soil acidity.|
• Identify rates of soil acidification.
Outcomes and strategic directions
A diverse and productive landscape with healthy, functioning soils.
Outcomes and strategic directions
Table 109 outlines long (20-year) and medium-term (6-year) outcomes for the catchment’s land. It also presents strategic directions for each long-term outcome. Please note, the outcomes are complementary and consideration of outcomes is required during implementation to achieve the vision.
Table 109: Desired long (20-year) and medium-term (6-year) outcomes for land and associated strategic directions
|1. Improved land health for enhanced resilience across the catchment.||• Land managers are engaged in improving land health.|
• Increased plant species diversity across the landscape.
• 100% of land maintains 70% ground cover.
• Soil organic carbon levels for 80% of the catchment are above 2% and where possible increasing.
• Soil pH levels are at or above 4.8 in calcium chloride, or at a level where available aluminium is not above 5%.
• Improve our understanding of subsoil acidity across the catchment.
• Public land management plans and strategies incorporate land health and traditional ecological knowledge.
|• Increase the diversity and area of ground cover on public and private land|
• Understand the tipping points for ground cover diversity and the practices needed to increase species diversity.
• Understand the rates of soil acidification across different land uses and soil types.
|2. Land management is mitigating climate change across the catchment.||• 90% of land managers have increased knowledge and are implementing practices to adapt to and mitigate climate change, while improving land health.|
• 90% of agricultural businesses are transitioning to low-emission agriculture.
|• Build partnerships, awareness and skills of climate change scenarios and the implications.|
• Increase the implementation of practices that adapt to and mitigate climate change, while improving land health.
Priority actions provide ideas and options for the future, rather than fixed work plans. The actions must evolve as the catchment changes and new information becomes available.
Tables 110 and 111 present priority actions for each long-term outcome as:
- Established actions, which are those currently occurring that we would like to continue. They include business as usual, recognised and existing practices. These actions are widespread and well-understood.
- Pathway actions, which are innovations that help us shift from the current situation to an ideal future. For example, experiments, bridging or transition actions that take place during the transition from established to transforming actions.
- Transforming actions, which are the way we want things to work in the future. For example, the new normal, visionary ideas and new ways of doing things to create change. There may be pockets of these already happening.
A combination of all 3 types of actions is required to achieve the vision for the future (Figure 48).
Dividing actions this way is based on the Three Horizons framework and helps communities:
- think and plan for the longer-term by identifying emerging trends that might shape the future
- understand why current practices might not lead to a desired future
- recognise visionary actions that might be needed to get closer to a desired future.
Long-term outcome 1: Improved land health for enhanced resilience across the catchment by 2040
Table 110: Priority actions required to help achieve long-term outcome 1
|Action type||Priority actions|
|Established||• Agricultural and other land use information and services integrate environmental and community with economic considerations.|
• Increase the activities and connections between new, lifestyle, peri-urban, family farms and corporate private land managers.
• Increased lifestyle landholders, visitors and urban community awareness of their impacts on the natural environment. For example, removing ground cover and soil disturbance to create new four-wheel drive tracks negatively impacts land health.
• Build an understanding of how traditional ecological knowledge can guide land management, for example, identify specific practices.
• Address the impacts of historical land management through extension and engagement of practices such as: the establishment of multi-species corridors in farmland, development of steep hill grazing and drought management plans, monitor and highlight areas of low ground cover to target for ground cover management plans.
• Adopt land management practices that improve soil health and water holding capacity.
• Develop monitoring tools and services to support decision making by land managers.
• Strengthen local planning policy and compliance for new landholders with requirement for appropriate property design and management practices.
• Deliver accredited courses to improve property planning and management; and meet local government planning requirements. For example, whole farm planning courses.
• Deliver soil, water and land management services to improve farm business planning and management.
• Support local government and other organisations to map local soil issues (erosive soils, sodic soils) and develop management guidelines under a range of land uses (urban infrastructure development, agriculture).
• Land capability limits are described for each catchment land system.
• Increased awareness of historic public land management practices leading to soil capping and litter loss and hydrophobic (inability to absorb moisture) soil.
• Leverage community desire for greener agricultural products to support NRM works on-farm.
• Increase awareness of urban communities of the land stewardship role played by private land managers.
• Create opportunities for urban communities to contribute to land stewardship on private land, for example, volunteering, purchasing green products and donations.
|Pathway||• Promote land stewardship, incorporating Traditional Owner values where permitted, and opportunities to incentivise practice change.|
• Educate new landholders about suitable property design and management practices when there is a land use change from agriculture to lifestyle properties.
• Provide opportunities for visitors and urban communities to improve public land health, for example, volunteer events.
• Create and deliver land health education modules in all schools.
• Use the quantified impacts of different land management practices on land health in a series of educational materials.
• Traditional ecological knowledge guides management practices on case study properties representing different land use.
• Better understand the relationship between species diversity, land health and tipping points.
• Undertake subsoil baseline testing for soil acidity across the catchment.
• Develop tools that quantify and measure the impacts of land use and management practices on the critical attributes, such as the benefit of ecological systems on farms.
• Investment in renewable energy infrastructure, such as solar farms and Victoria’s Renewal Energy Zones, is appropriately located and designed to improve land health.
• The adoption of technologies, such as virtual fencing, temporary solar fencing and remote monitoring, is used to increase ground cover and species diversity on-farm.
• Every property larger than 10 acres sets targets and actions, and is monitoring practices to maintain and improve ground cover and plant species diversity.
• Legacy issues of historic public land management practices are addressed through active soil and hydrology restoration projects.
• Support the development of mechanisms that credit private and public landholders and managers for the ecosystem services they provide the community, such as carbon sequestration, habitat provision and biodiversity conservation.
|Transforming||• Public and private landholders and managers understand the impact of their actions on the critical attributes, their responsibilities and how to remain below critical attribute thresholds.|
• All land management decisions contribute to improving land health.
• Traditional ecological knowledge guides management practices on public and private land.
• Fuel reduction burning and forest management actions take account of traditional ecological knowledge, soil hydrology and nutrient cycling.
• Visitors and urban communities actively seek opportunities to reduce their impacts on the environment when visiting public land.
Long-term outcome 2: Land management is mitigating climate change across the catchment by 2040
Table 111: Priority actions required to help achieve long-term outcome 2
|Action type||Priority actions|
|Established||• Harness the diversity of landholders and approaches to build capability and an understanding of options to adapt to climate change.|
• Describe land capability and health across the catchment under different climate change scenarios.
• Strengthen awareness and investigate new technologies and practices to adapt to and mitigate climate change.
|Pathway||• Build the partnership, awareness and skills of the community about climate change scenarios and possible technologies, services and land use that may become relevant, for example climate analogues.|
• Describe the future management practices required for different land use under climate change.
• Adopt technologies and land management practices that support adaptation to climate change.
• Research the potential benefits of strategic plantings to reduce heat stress and agricultural production impacts from higher temperatures and heat waves.
• Research the potential benefits of carbon sequestration on public land, for a range of restoration activities and vegetation types.
|Transforming||• A regional carbon exchange and stewardship fund enables the community and visitors to offset their climate change impacts and contribute to funds for rural land managers to regenerate biodiversity, native vegetation and soil health.|
• Adopt land management practices that focus on cooling the soil to maintain or increase soil moisture content.
• Climate change mitigation is an integral part of all land management.
Progress towards the land theme outcomes will follow the strategy’s evaluation and adaptation framework outlined here.
Catchment condition for land will be reported annually through state-wide indicators, as part of the Goulburn Broken CMA annual report:
- the type, number, area and value of agricultural enterprises
- percentage of exposed soil
- amount and change of land use over time.
Monitoring tipping points
Tipping points for the land critical attributes will be monitored where possible:
- species diversity
- ground cover
- soil carbon
- soil acidity.
References and further information
Agriculture Victoria (n.d.) Victorian Resources Online, Land Capability, Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions website.
Agriculture Victoria (n.d.) Victorian Resources Online, Soil Health, Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions website.
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2021) Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, ABS website.
Barr N (2018) Socio-economic indicators of change – Goulburn Broken and North East CMA Regions [PDF 21.31MB], Natural Decisions Pty Ltd.
Benton TG, Vickery JA and Wilson JD (2003) ‘Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key?’, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18:182-188.
Cork S, Eadie L, Mele P, Price R and Yule D (2012) The relationship between land management practices and soil condition and the quality of ecosystem services delivered from agricultural land in Australia, Kiri-ganai Research, Canberra.
Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning (2020) Victoria’s Land Cover Time series, DELWP website.
Fischer J, Lindenmayer DB & Manning AD (2006) ‘Biodiversity, ecosystem function and resilience: ten guiding principles for commodity production landscapes’, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4(2):80-86.
Goulburn Broken CMA (Catchment Management Authority) (2017) Goulburn Broken Land Health Strategy 2017-2020, Goulburn Broken CMA, Shepparton.
Goulburn Broken CMA (Catchment Management Authority) (2012) Goulburn Broken Regional Catchment Strategy 2012-2018 Assets of the Goulburn Broken Catchment [PDF 2.11MB], Goulburn Broken CMA, Shepparton.
Guerschman JP, Leys J, Rozas Larraondo P, Henrikson M, Paget M and Barson M (2018) Monitoring groundcover: an online tool for Australian regions, report to the Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, CSIRO.
Kallenbach C, Frey S and Grandy A (2016) ‘Direct evidence for microbial-derived soil organic matter formation and its ecophysiological controls’, Nature Communications, 7, 13630, doi:10.1038/ncomms13630.
Lal R (2004) ‘Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change’, Geoderma, 123(1-2):1-22.
Lange M, Eisenhauer N, Sierra C et al. (2015) ‘Plant diversity increases soil microbial activity and soil carbon storage’, Nature Communications, 6, 6707, doi:10.1038/ncomms7707.
Lovell ST and Johnston DM (2009) ‘Designing Landscapes for Performance Based on Emerging Principles in Landscape Ecology’, Ecology and Society, 14(1):44.
Menzies N, Harbison D and Dart P (2012) ‘Soil chemistry facts and fiction and their influence on the fertiliser decision-making process – part 2’, GSSA, 296:7-14.
Walker B (1995) ‘Conserving biological diversity through ecosystem resilience’, Conservation Biology, 9:747-52.
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